Cyber Physical Systems
IMPROVE also implies the concept of cyber-physical systems (CPS).
In general, a CPS consists of two main functional components: (1) the advanced connectivity that ensures real-time data acquisition from the physical world and information feedback from the cyber space; and (2) intelligent data management, analytics and computational capability that constructs the cyber space.
Recent advances in the manufacturing industry has paved way for a systematic deployment of Cyber-Physical Systems (CPS), within which information from all related perspectives is closely monitored and synchronized between the physical factory floor and the cyber computational space. Moreover, by utilizing advanced information analytics, networked machines will be able to perform more efficiently, collaboratively and resiliently. Such trend is transforming manufacturing industry to the next generation, namely Industry 4.0..
 B. B. H.-A. K. Jay Lee, A Cyber-Physical Systems architecture for Industrie 4.0-based manufacturing systems, in Manufacturing Letters Volume 3, 2015.